Safety—Lithium and lithium-ion batteries are designed using several safety standards including ISO, SAE and ANSI. These standards apply to the design features of the electrode, electrolyte, membrane separator, cell, module and battery pack, as well as the handling for delivery and disposal purposes.

Recycling—Historically, recycling of lithium and lithium-ion batteries has been limited due to dispersion in end-use devices and the high cost of collection, separation and re-purification.2 As use in vehicles increases, however, it is expected that battery recycling rates will also increase due to vehicle battery recycling systems already in place.1 In 2010, 96.2 percent of lead-acid car batteries were recycled; this is the highest recycling rate of any recycled material.3 According to the U.S. Geological Survey, “recycling of electric vehicle batteries could provide 50 percent of the lithium requirement for new batteries by 2040.” 1

1 Goonan, T.G., 2012, Lithium use in batteries: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1371
2 U.S. Department of Energy, “
Critical Materials Strategy, December 2011,” DOE/PI-0009, January 10, 2012
3 U.S. EPA, Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2010

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