Large batteries power all-electric and hybrid vehicles and are used for load leveling in solar- and wind-powered electric generation systems.1

Electric Vehicles—In the future, automobiles could be powered by electric motors with large, lightweight batteries. Due to its high charge-to-weight ratio, lithium is a particularly suited for use in vehicle batteries.1

Energy Storage—The U.S. Department of Energy predicts that lithium batteries could be important to the successful integration of renewable electricity technologies in the context of Smart Grid development.2

Advanced Technology—Lithium-ion batteries are improving and advanced energy storage technologies, such as lithium-air and lithium-sulfur, require lithium metal in the anode of such batteries. Prototypes for these advanced systems have already demonstrated three times as much energy density as the best currently available lithium-ion systems.

1 Goonan, T.G., 2012, Lithium use in batteries: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1371
2 U.S. Department of Energy, “
Critical Materials Strategy, December 2011 ,” DOE/PI-0009, January 10, 2012


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